Filing a complaint with a National Contact Point (NCP) can be a way to seek remedy for corporate harms and address corporate misconduct.

However, before filing a complaint, communities and their representatives should consider several questions: Is the situation covered by the OECD Guidelines? Is filing a complaint to an NCP the best choice? What are the possible outcomes and limitations of the process? How will the complaint support and be supported by a larger strategy to address the harm? Following these steps can help you decide whether to file an NCP complaint:

  • Step 1: Define the harms and relevant companies First, identify what specific harms have occurred or may occur in the situation you have in mind: for example, human or labour rights violations, environmental degradation, bribery, or tax avoidance. Also identify which company(ies) seem involved, considering the company causing the harm itself, and also its business relations such as suppliers, buyers, retailers, consultants, and investors.
  • Step 2: Assess whether the OECD Guidelines apply An NCP complaint is possible only if the OECD Guidelines apply to both the harms and at least one of the involved companies.
    • Harms: The OECD Guidelines establish expectations for businesses in 11 chapters discussing due diligence; disclosure; human rights; labour rights; the environment (and animal welfare); bribery, consumer interests; science, technology and innovation; competition; and taxation. Are any of the harms you identified related to these topics?
    • Companies: The OECD Guidelines apply to all multinational enterprises headquartered in an OECD member or adherent state, wherever they operate in the world. The OECD Guidelines also apply to all multinational enterprises operating inside an OECD member or adherent state with respect to the harms at issue. Does any company you identified meet either criteria for this situation?

  • Step 3: Identify your goals If the OECD Guidelines seem applicable to the situation, then think about your goals regarding the corporate harm identified. Complainants often seek one or more of the following:
    • Remedy (including compensation or restitution) for harms caused,
    • Acknowledgement or apology by a company,
    • Cessation of harmful activity,
    • Improved practices moving forward,
    • Government attention to the situation,
    • Investor and/or public awareness about an issue.

  • Step 4: Weigh possible outcomes, limitations and costs While an NCP complaint may help you achieve your goals, also consider some of the limitations and costs of filing:
    • Possible good outcomes: A complaint might possibly result in a changed circumstance on the ground, such as compensation for victims or changed policies of a company moving forward. As a result of a complaint, an NCP may issue a strong statement determining the company has breached the OECD Guidelines. A complaint may also help increase government attention or public awareness about an the issue.
    • Outcome limitations: Although good outcomes are possible, none of them are guaranteed. Because the OECD Guidelines are not binding on corporations, NCPs cannot require a company to participate in a complaint or take action to remediate or prevent harms. At best, NCPs can only encourage action. Not all NCPs have a strong track record in promoting meaningful resolution of specific instances. A complaint therefore may not help you achieve any of your aims.
    • Time costs: Complaints can take months to prepare. After filing, complaint processing should take about one year, and many cases have lasted several years.
    • Resource costs: NCPs do not charge filing fees. However, the complaint process can still require a lot of resources, including staff labour costs to research and write the complaint, travel for investigations and/or NCP meetings, translation of documents, and consultant advice and support.

    Make sure a complaint is worth the risks and costs within your larger strategy to address the adverse corporate impacts.

  • Step 5: Consider alternative strategies that may be better An NCP complaint may help you achieve your goals – but there is no guarantee. Consider whether another action might be more effective for you, such as:
    • Filing a court case,
    • Filing an administrative complaint to a government office,
    • Filing a complaint to a non-state-based mechanism, such as at a development finance institution, human rights commission, or industry grievance mechanism,
    • Raising awareness through other means,
    • Seeking a shareholder action,
    • Pursuing direct dialogue with a company (if considered safe and worthwhile).

    Pursuing complaints simultaneously is possible and may or may not be helpful. If you plan to file an NCP complaint while pursuing another type of complaint – or if another complaint has already been filed somewhere else on the same issue – please read the page on parallel proceedings in Other filing considerations.